Casualty rate: Some small-scale troops, such as battalion-level troops, have outstanding abilities, and may bear 30% or even more than half of the casualties. However, this kind of thing cannot be treated as a special case because of the general performance of the whole army.

If it is put on the scale of division and corps, the Chinese warlord troops, whether Wang Yingkai’s direct troops or Zhao Dongyun’s army, will have little impact on the troops, and they can often maintain high morale and continue to attack.
If the casualties reach 10%, it will seriously affect the morale of the troops. At this time, if the officers are rational enough, they will choose to stop the current offensive tactics and consider adopting other offensive tactics.
If the casualties reach 15%, then it can be concluded that this unit has lost its offensive ability, let alone the casualty rate of 20% or 30%, not to mention the direct collapse of the attack.
There is no good way for Zhao Dongyun, who has a low casualty rate in the army, because there is one practical way to solve this problem, that is, to let the soldiers have national, ethnic and ideological beliefs
And do these things exist in contemporary China?
not have
The terms "country" and "nation" are actually unfamiliar words to the general public. There is no such concept as "modern country" and "nation". For them, whether it is the former Qing Dynasty, the southern federation or the northern republic government, it is a dynasty, not a government.
Ordinary people don’t care whether Guangxu or Wang Yingkai is the emperor or the president.
Modern nationalism is even more nonsense. At that time, although many knowledgeable elites would value the word’ nationality’, ordinary people were not interested in nationality. The so-called distinction between Han people and Manchu and Mongolian Tibetans was really far away for them. For example, many people in the later world were familiar with the ethnic contradictions between Han people and Manchu in the late Qing Dynasty. Most of the contradictions between Manchu and Han people in the late Qing Dynasty were imposed by their own national concepts, but they were not so-called ethnic contradictions at that time.
One of the various chaotic contradictions in China thousands of years before the Revolution of 1911 was the contradiction between the ruling class and the ruled class.
This statement is not only applicable to ancient China, but also to most wars and disputes between ancient and modern times in the world.
To some extent, all kinds of doctrines, beliefs and other messy things that the later generations have been cultivated since childhood are actually a kind of mental brainwashing imposed on the controlled class by the controlling class. Various doctrines and beliefs are excellent control tools.
The most representative example is that these Christians have the same emperor, but they have dozens of doctrines. Why are there so many branches of Christianity, such as Catholicism, Protestantism and Orthodox Church? The conscience of heaven and earth is definitely not the work of the Lord himself, but because the rulers of different times and regions hope that the people’s beliefs will allow them to believe in religion, and they need doctrines to strengthen their rule 2.
If people have to have faith, everyone can be your own emperor.
Whether it is religious belief, national belief or national belief, these beliefs need the rulers to take a long time to cultivate and strengthen contemporary China. Obviously, Zhao Dongyun has not reached this point yet. It is estimated that it will take decades to brainwash the people if he wants the soldiers to shout’ Long live China or the Chinese nation to charge’.
However, Zhao Dongyun didn’t have so much time. He chose the simplest way, that is, he still imitated the ancient times and established his personal loyalty belief, so that the soldiers could let Zhao Dongyun fight.
Although the effect is far less than those of various doctrines, the victory is simple and the time required is short enough for Zhao Dongyun to build a personal army that has been loyal to him in just a few years.
To tell the truth, Zhao Dongyun doesn’t have the ability and time to give up the illusory concept of country and nation at present.
Of course, modern China is not without the concept of nationality. Well, for example, in two neighboring villages, large-scale fighting between foreign land and land often occurs in the south, but it is very famous.
Should the concept of modern country and nation be formed in historical China or after the Revolution of 1911? To be precise, it should be after the May Fourth Movement. The two lexical bases of country and nation are just slogans shouted by high politicians.
Without the concept of country and nation, you can’t expect them to have the same high casualty rate as the big powers.
The number of casualties of the straight army is now%, which may not seem to be very large, but it has greatly weakened the ability of the straight army to continue to launch large-scale attacks.
Now, although the direct army has made a big breakthrough in the southern front, it has never completely torn the strategic support point of the southern front in the direction of Hanhezhuang. Although the first line of defense has been lost, the second line of defense is now crumbling, but it is finally held anyway.
In this case, if the direct army wants to launch a third large-scale attack, it will have to replenish ammunition and men, which are all necessary.
But it is also the most needed by Fengjun!
As Chun Li expected, after 1 a.m., the straight army stopped its large-scale attack except for the harassment and exploratory attack of several cannons.
At five o’clock in the morning, the ninth regiment of the third division finally arrived at the front line of Tangshan. Although the Ministry was exhausted from marching all night, it had been fighting for a day, and the seventh Huncheng Brigade in Chun Li was in urgent need of reinforcements.
Although the soldiers of the ninth regiment were exhausted, they still threw themselves into the front line for the first time!
The arrival of the ninth regiment failed to hide the fact that the direct army was only a few hundred meters away. Soon the frontline command of the first division didn’t sleep all night. Lu Yongxiang’s eyes were red and his eyes were bloodshot. His map looked!
"Do you confirm that Fengjun reinforcements have come to the serial number?" Lu Yongxiang asked in a hoarse voice.
"According to the investigation of the frontline troops and what we learned from Tangshan, the source of information should be an infantry regiment of the third division, which regiment is unknown!" Next to the staff carefully answered.
"Where are his troops in the third division now?" Lu Yongxiang continued
"The troops of the third division of Fengjun left Tangshan by train early yesterday and at noon. According to the itinerary, they should be able to fall down today, but we haven’t got the accurate news from other troops of the third division yet. The reconnaissance cavalry was intercepted by Fengjun cavalry when trying to bypass Tangshan yesterday." The war staff continued to answer.
Lu Yongxiang was more worried about the cavalry he sent to Zunhua to serve the army. The two cavalry brigades didn’t dare to send large-scale cavalry units, but some of them were intercepted by the cavalry under the jurisdiction of the Seventh Hunchenglv. Even if some of them successfully marched eastward, it was a big question mark whether they could find the third division in the night last night.
Looking at the white area in the east of Tangshan, Lu Yongxiang can guess that the third division is near here, and he is more worried that Fengjun left yesterday and went west to see the huge white area in Tangshan and Zunhua.
Lu Yongxiang looked up after frowning for a long time, then looked at his many officers and sank, "We withdraw!"
Chapter two hundred and fifty-five Reinforcements arrived
War has a purpose. It doesn’t mean that if you want to start a war on a whim, you will start a war directly. The most fundamental purpose of the war is that Zhao Dongyun wants to enter and Zhao Dongyun wants to occupy Zhili, so there is an irreconcilable contradiction with Wang Yingkai.
That’s why Wang Yingkai, when there was a change in the mountains and seas, was like an enemy. He directly mobilized his troops to take over Tangshan in the name of defending Tangshan. It is very obvious that he wanted to catch Zhao Dongyun’s main army and conquer Tangshan.
What will conquer Tangshan? This Tangshan is not only the main stronghold of Fengjun to March into the bridgehead of Jingshi, but also mainly because Tangshan has Fuyuan Machine Factory, an arsenal.
Fuyuan Machinery Factory, the largest arsenal in China, has already surpassed the sum of Hanyang Arsenal and Jiangnan Manufacturing Bureau, the other two major arsenals in China. It not only has the ability to mass-produce rifles and ammunition, but also can mass-produce light and heavy machine guns, pistols and sabers. More importantly, the factory also has the ability to mass-produce mortars of various calibers with 75 mm tubes that have passed the mountain guns.
It’s good to say that the Hanyang and Jiangnan Manufacturing Bureaus in China, Guangdong Manufacturing Bureaus, Sichuan Manufacturing Bureaus, Jinling Manufacturing Bureaus and many other factories in the south have been able to produce rifles. However, except Hanyang and Jiangnan, the rifles produced by the factories are slightly poor in performance, and the price is also very expensive. What’s more, the production capacity is very low. Otherwise, the Southern Union will not be forced to import rifles from foreign countries on a large scale. The combined output of all the factories in this country is actually not as good as that of a Fuyuan Machine Factory.
Hanyang can also produce heavy machine guns in small batches, and Jinling Manufacturing Bureau can occasionally produce a few. In addition, Guangdong Manufacturing Bureau also imitates Madsen light machine guns, but the output is unsightly. Generally speaking, except Fuyuan Machinery Factory, the output of light and heavy machine guns in other factories can be directly ignored.
As far as artillery is concerned, let alone the old guns. At present, in addition to Fuyuan Machine Factory, Jiangnan Manufacturing Bureau can produce German-style 75mm guns with guns with guns. However, they have just entered the trial production stage two years after their successful imitation. The output of this gun is extremely limited to Hanyang Arsenal’s production of 57mm fast guns over mountains. Although it is called "fast guns", the quality of this gun is still a gun with guns with guns with guns with a range and firing rate far less than that of new guns.
After these visits, we can find the important position of Fuyuan Machinery Factory in the national military industry. It can be said that a Fuyuan Machinery Factory occupies half of the national military production.
Who doesn’t want to control this arsenal? Last year, Zhao Dongyun kept Tangshan and Fuyuan Machinery Factory at the risk of posing as a do-or-die momentum. At that time, the Southern Federation was extremely prosperous and clamored for the Northern Expedition every day. This Wang Yingkai was forced to give up Tangshan.
Now that Zhao Dongyun has once again entered the direct service of the two armies, he has directly beaten Wang Yingkai. Of course, he has no scruples and hopes to seize Tangshan and control Fuyuan Machine Factory at the first time.
Take control of Fuyuan machinery factory, unplug Fengjun, March into bridgehead and block Fengjun from Tangshan Shandong area. This is the direct reason why Wang Yingkai ordered his troops to attack Tangshan.
However, one day after Lu Yongxiang, the commander of the first division in charge of specific command warfare, stormed Tangshan, he found that Tangshan’s tight defense system was far from being able to break through in a day or two, but the main force of Fengjun could arrive in Tangshan at any time, and there was no hope of conquering Tangshan at that time.
At this time, Lu Yongxiang should consider that it is not like conquering Tangshan, but like blocking the follow-up attack of Fengjun from the capital. Then the first thing to consider is to stop the third division.
Just like everyone knows that this first division is the main force of Wang Yingjie’s first trump card, the warlords in China are very ordinary people know that Zhao Dongyun started his career by relying on the third division, which is him. Zhao Dongyun’s trump card army Lu Yongxiang wants to stop the offensive of the third division, which is equivalent to stopping more than half of the pace of serving the army from outside the capital.
Seeing that the third division is about to arrive in Lu Yongxiang, Tangshan, I don’t want to be raided by the third division when I am exhausted by attacking Tangshan. He needs to withdraw his troops from the front line and then rest and prepare for the war with the third division!
Lu Yongxiang’s determination is resolute. On the 13th, the direct troops on the front line will gradually withdraw from the front line. Although Chun Li found that the direct troops on the front line were gradually decreasing, on the one hand, he didn’t think Lu Yongxiang would be so determined to withdraw directly. On the other hand, his troops suffered heavy losses after yesterday’s battle and there were not many troops. If they rushed to pursue it, it would be tragic. More importantly, he did not pursue the direct troops, but held Tangshan. If Tangshan was destroyed, it is estimated that he could not escape the dismissal of the entire Lu Yongxiang First Division.
Li Chun was extremely cautious during the whole day on the 13th, except for launching two small counter-attacks at the battalion level, there was no large-scale pursuit by him, and these two counter-attacks at the battalion level were not very smooth.
Lu Yongxiang is not a talented person. When he naturally won’t withdraw his troops, he doesn’t even arrange the actual withdrawal of the first division and the first mixed brigade. The withdrawal process is quite orderly, and a large number of rear-end troops have also been arranged, which has caused Chun Li to arrange two battalion counterattacks, both of which have suffered setbacks. Although the counterattacks have achieved certain results, their own casualties are not small
This state of withdrawal and small-scale counterattack continued until the arrival of the main force of the third division in the evening, and not only the officials at all levels of the third division but also the personnel of the first army command arrived in Tangshan in the evening led by Meng Enyuan.
"At present, according to the intelligence information obtained by our army before, it can be judged that the main force of the first division and the first mixed brigade of the straight army is currently staying in Huanxizhuang, Zhaojiakou and Dazhuang, which are about 3 thousand meters to 5 thousand meters away from the frontier positions of our army, and it has been learned that the straight army has been digging fortifications to build preliminary earthworks!"
Xue Yiping, chief of staff of the Seventh Huncheng Brigade, is doing what he usually does when he has a war adviser, that is, the military meeting returns to the military situation. After all, today’s military meeting is attended by senior generals, including General Meng Enyuan, the commander of the First Army, General Chen Guangyuan, the commander of the Third Division, General Kong Diaobei, the brigade commander of the Fifth Brigade, General Gu Lanyu, the brigade commander of the Sixth Brigade, General Li Chunshao, the brigade commander of the Seventh Huncheng Brigade, and Lu Chengtong, the brigade commander of the First Cavalry Brigade.
In addition to these army chiefs, there are also some school officials, including Qin Shouyun, chief of staff of the Third Division, Lieutenant Colonel Xue Yiping, chief of staff of the Seventh Huncheng Brigade, and three chief of staff of the Fifth Brigade, the Sixth Brigade and the First Cavalry Brigade.
More than a dozen people in the field constitute the senior commander of the first military department of Fengjun, and among the people here, Xue Yiping is the lowest rank lieutenant colonel and he is the chief of staff of the seventh Huncheng Brigade. He knows more about various military intelligence agencies in the past day than his staff, and he will explain the military intelligence report before this meeting.
"Look at this Lu Yongxiang, it’s still a bit daring to see our third division coming without turning around and running!" Meng Enyuan ha ha smiled and tried to make the field officers come easily. Don’t always keep a straight face, but the enemy currently includes Chen Guangyuan and Chun Li. What’s the mood there? Hearing Meng Enyuan laugh, they also echoed the words.
Xue Yiping continued, "And the Intelligence Bureau has come to the news that the 22nd Brigade of the 11th Division of Fengjun has left Beijing and moved eastward. At present, the 12th Division and its headquarters are still in the capital, and there is no trace of transfer!"

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